Analysis of Chemokines in Stroke

Chemokines are small signaling proteins (8-10 kDa) belonging to the cytokine family. They are capable of inducing directed chemotaxis of nearby responding cells, especially leukocytes. After cerebral ischemia, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, enhance the production and release of specific chemokines, such as monocyte chemokine 1 (MCP-1), fractalkine, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1), microglial response factor-1 (MRF-1), response factor-1 (MRF-1), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC). These chemokines and their receptors play important roles in regulating various pathological and physiological processes, among which their role in post-ischemic inflammation is an important contributor to ischemic brain injury. Since chemokines are associated with the worsening of stroke pathogenesis, their ligands and receptors may serve as potential therapeutic targets.

Fig. 1. Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in regulating the pathological and physiological processes of stroke.Fig. 1. Cytokines/chemokines involved in the recruitment and migration of monocytes in ischemic stroke. (Bai et al., 2023)

Our Services

Ace Therapeutics offers comprehensive analytical services to study the role of chemokines in stroke. Our team of highly skilled researchers and experts in the field of neuroscience utilize state-of-the-art technologies and methods to analyze chemokines and their receptors in stroke and develop them as drug targets.

In Vivo Analysis of Chemokines in Stroke

We offer customizable animal models of ischemic stroke, such as the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to study the temporal and spatial expression patterns of chemokines and their receptors in the brain after ischemic injury. We can also analyze the functional impact of chemokine regulation on neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and neurological outcomes.

In Vitro Analysis of Chemokines in Stroke

We culture primary neuronal cells, glial cells, and immune cells to study the interactions between different cell types in response to chemokine stimulation, helping our clients understand the signaling pathways activated by chemokines and their effects on cell survival, migration, and inflammatory responses.

Types of Chemokines We Can Analyze

Ace Therapeutics can analyze the role of multiple chemokines in stroke, including but not limited to:

  • CC chemokine family: CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL17, and CCL20.
  • CXC chemokine family: CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL4, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL7, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL12, and CXCL16
  • CX3C chemokine family: CX3CL1/CX3CR1

Our Methods

  • We use PCR arrays to screen the temporal expression profiles of multiple chemokine-related genes during focal cerebral ischemia in mice.
  • We provide reliable methods to measure infarct size, brain edema, and motor function in a mouse model of focal transient cerebral ischemia following genetic deletion of chemokine receptors deletion.
  • We provide real-time PCR to analyze the chemokine mRNA expression levels in animal models of stroke.
  • We use ELISA to quantify chemokine-associated proteins expression levels.

Ace Therapeutics provides comprehensive services to analyze the role of chemokines in the pathophysiology of stroke and develop chemokines preclinically as effective biomarkers for predicting stroke severity and prognosis. We work closely with our clients to provide customized solutions to meet the unique requirements of each research project. If you are interested in our services, please do not hesitate to contact us!

  1. Bai, M., et al. (2023). Monocyte-related cytokines/chemokines in cerebral ischemic stroke. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 29(12), 3693-3712.
All of our services are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.
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