Custom Embolic Stroke Models

Most focal ischemic strokes are caused by thromboembolism. An embolus is most often a piece of a thrombus that has broken free and travels to brain usually from an atherosclerotic plaque or heart. Embolic occlusion models can better match this specific situation, which allows us to study the mechanisms of vascular occlusion in stroke. Embolic occlusion falls into two main categories: thromboembolus and artificial spheres. Thromboemboli can be further divided into spontaneous blood clots (autogenous or allogeneic blood clots) and induced thrombi (thrombin-induced clots and photothrombosis).

Fig. 1. Embolic stroke model with magnetic nanoparticles.Fig. 1. Embolic stroke model with magnetic nanoparticles. (Li et al., 2021)

Custom Embolic Stroke Models

Ace Therapeutics is a company with extensive experience in stroke research, providing customized and reliable embolic stroke models to meet our clients' specific requirements. We also offer a range of standard outcomes including infarct volume, hemorrhage volume (hemorrhage conversion), mortality, and neurobehavioral testing.

Thromboembolic Stroke Models

Description Thromboembolic models are based on applying autologous or allogenic spontaneous blood clots or thrombin-induced blood clots. Blood is obtained from a tested animal (autogenous) or another species, usually human (allo-/xenogeneic), left for clot formation and intraarterially injected to cause vessel occlusion.
Animal Modeling Method We can inject the blood clot into the internal carotid artery. We can also replace intracarotid injections in rats with middle cerebral artery (MCA) catheter insertions, providing you with greater accuracy and reproducibility. Through microsurgery, a microcatheter is inserted into the carotid artery and introduced into the MCA. Catheter location and arterial occlusion are confirmed by a laser Doppler probe placed in the temporal region of the skull.
Expected Areas of Damage Parietal temporal cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and even the contralateral hemisphere
Special Characteristics
  • Unreliable infarcts and variable neurologic deficits
  • Autologous blood clots in experimental animals are resistant to human rt-PA
Application Investigate thrombolytic processes

Embolic Occlusion Model Induced by Directly Injecting Artificial Spheres

Description Embolic occlusion modeling is induced by injecting artificial microspheres (15-50 µm) or artificial macrospheres (300-400 µm in diameter) directly into occluded common carotid arteries (CCA), internal carotid arteries (ICA), or MCA.
Animal Modeling Method We offer many different materials such as silica gel, collagen, or titanium dioxide (TiO2) for embolic stroke induction in animal models.
Expected Areas of Damage Parietal temporal cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, thalamus, and nucleus accumbens
Special Characteristics
  • Microsphere embolization produces relatively variable infarcts
  • Macrosphere embolization model provides focal cerebral infarcts similar to intraluminal suture occlusion but avoids hypothalamic injury and hyperthermia
  • Only suitable for permanent modeling, but not for temporary occlusion and cannot be used for thrombolysis studies like the intratubular line model
  • Microspheres induce graded infarcts
  • Reproductivity of macrosphere embolization
Application Pharmacology and rehabilitation studies

At Ace Therapeutics, our embolic stroke models provide a more comprehensive approach to this disease for your preclinical research. Need to know more? Contact us and let one of our experts provide you with all the answers you need.

  1. Li, H., et al. (2021). Embolic stroke model with magnetic nanoparticles. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 13(37), 43993-44001.
All of our services are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.
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