Animal Modeling of Hemorrhagic Stroke

Compared to ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke is less common but more likely to be fatal. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and devastating hemorrhagic stroke with a mortality rate of approximately 50% within 1 month. As with ischemia, no model can perfectly reflect the complexity and heterogeneity of human ICH. Several ICH animal models have been developed, including autologous blood injection, collagenase injection, thrombin injection, and microsphere inflation methods, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ICH-induced brain injury. Experimental ICH models have been studied in several species including mice, rats, rabbits, cats, pigs and primates. The ICH model should be selected carefully to fit the study aims.

Fig. 1. Schematic illustrations of injury 6 weeks after collagenase and whole blood-induced ICH.Fig. 1. Schematic illustrations of injury 6 weeks after collagenase and whole blood-induced ICH. (MacLellan et al., 2010)

Custom Animal Models of Hemorrhagic Stroke

Ace Therapeutics provides customized animal models of ICH to clients worldwide to help them study the underlying mechanisms of ICH-induced brain injury and discover new therapies for preclinical ICH. We combine the scientific support of Ph.D. scientists, extensive phenotypic data, and customized evaluation services to accelerate your hemorrhagic stroke research efforts.

Animal Modeling Method

By having access to the right models at the right stage of disease progression, your research program can start faster and accelerate the time to data. Through our portfolio of models, active partnerships, and customized services, we eliminate the common challenges of obtaining disease-specific models. Below are the different experimental animal models available for ICH:

This model involves drawing autologous blood from the tail vein and injecting it into the striatum of rats or mice with the help of an infusion system, which closely resembles clinical ICH. The amount of blood injected and the rate of injection in this model will have different effects on the modeling results. After continuous exploration, we provide a comprehensive set of autologous blood injection modeling methods that can meet the needs of different studies.

In the bacterial collagenase injection model, ICH is simulated by injecting bacterial collagenase into the basal ganglia region. Depending on the specific requirements of the experiment, collagenase can be injected into most regions of the brain. We developed appropriate bacterial collagenase concentrations, injection volumes, and injection methods to consistently model appropriate bacterial collagenase injections.

Animal Model Characterization and Validation

We offer customized ICH animal model assessments to measure disease outcomes.

  • Behavioral assessments (the modified neurological severity score, forelimb placement test, open field test, corner test, and rotarod test)
  • Hematoma/lesion volume assessments (morphometry, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography)
  • Brain water content (dry/wet gravimetry, quantification of edema by magnetic resonance imaging)
  • Blood-brain barrier disruption (microscopic assessment, measurement of blood proteins, magnetic resonance imaging, Evans blue leakage, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran)


  • Investigate the pathophysiology of brain injury caused by ICH
  • Screen and develop new treatments for ICH

Ace Therapeutics provides standardized methods for inducing ICH brain injury in animals. We ensure high-quality results measuring the parameters of disease outcome assessment. Need to know more? Contact us and let one of our experts provide you with all the answers you need.

  1. MacLellan, C. L., et al. (2010). Rodent models of intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke, 41(10_suppl_1), S95-S98.
All of our services are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.
Inquiry Basket